Day 1 :
USAMV Cluj, Romania
Pop Oana Lelia is currently an assistant professor at the Food Science Department of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca. She has more than 10 years of experience in encapsulation and biotechnology (spray drying, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal passage, and microbiology), working with pro and prebiotics and different biopolymers. The intense and ever-growing interest she had regarding active cells as probiotics and their correlation with human prevention and amelioration of degenerative diseases, especially intestinal ones, led her to be a promising researcher with excellent and valuable results for the science community.
1 in 10 Europeans has iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to anemia, tiredness, and reduced productivity. 1 in 5 European women is anemic. Vegetarians are two times more likely to have iron deficiency. Iron needs to be absorbed from our food, but only 10% of iron is absorbed. Iron supplements cause gastrointestinal cramps and constipation because iron generates free oxygen radicals that cause inflammation and disturb the microbiome. Our study aims to find an iron formulation delivered with better efficacy and fewer side effects. A superior form of bioavailable iron-iron oxide nanoparticles are combined with probiotics that enhance iron absorption and reduce gastrointestinal side effects. Green synthesis of the iron oxide nanoparticles was used. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using: i) X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the crystal structures and lattice parameters of nanoparticles ii) FT-IR spectroscopy to assign characteristic frequencies to molecular groups and, therefore, the correlation of IR absorption bands with different structural units iii) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) iv) BET analysis for the study of surface porosity and particle size; v) XPS techniques will be used to evaluate the actual stoichiometry of the samples. The dependence of the structure, morphology-shape and size of the chemical composition of iron oxide nanoparticles will also be studied. Further probiotic ability to enhance the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and enhance transport by the production of lactic acid and p hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was evaluated. The evaluation of cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was done using Caco2 cell line model.
University of the Mountains, Cameron
DJONKOUH YAMDEU TCHOUKOUAHA Willy is affiliated to the University of the Mountains, Cameron.
Objective: The spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health problem in hospitals and communities worldwide, in Africa in particular. We carried out a cross-sectional and analytical study to evaluate the epidemiology of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and their neighborhood. Methodology: Our research was done over a period of 4 months (From 1st January to 15th March then from 1st June to 4th July 2020). A nasal swab was collected from 100 pig breeders, 77 family breeders, 292 pigs and 98 non breeders inhabitants from the Haut-Nkam, Haut- Plateaux, Nkoung-Khi, Mifi and NDE regions in the West region of Cameroon. Samples were cultured for microbial, biochemical, and susceptibility assays according to AC-FSM (2019). Results: The prevalences of MRSA were 25%, 12.59%, 10.62% and 4.08% in breeders, family, pigs and nonbreeders respectively. Our findings on risk factors showed that pig- breeder promiscuity (OR=1207,35; P=0.01), pig carriage of MRSA (OR=20.17; P=0.00), non- breeders living near the farm (OR=10.7; P=0.02), pigs from Koung-Khi (OR=6.3; P=0.0031) and antibiotics consumption (OR=1.34; P=0.0001) were statistically significant and associated to MRSA carriage. Interestingly, wearing protective clothing (OR=0.37; P=0.00), boots (OR= 0.36; P=0.006), gloves (OR= 0.34; P=0.0001) or nose patch (OR= 0.33; P=0.00) was a statistically significant protective factor against MRSA carriage. Our findings also showed that fusidic acid was more resistant to MRSA strains from pigs and non-breeders (51.5%; 75% respectively), and ofloxacin was the most potent antibiotic against MRSA strains in breeders and their family (18.5%; 20% respectively). Conclusion: Our study showed a high prevalence of MRSA within West regions and the existence of MRSA transmission dynamic amongst pigs, breeders and their neighborhood. Further genetic and molecular study are required to elucidate the diversity in MRSA strains and mechanisms of spread.
Namekong Fokeng Armand has completed his DVM at the age of 26 years from Ngaoundere University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon. He completed a master program in Biotechnologies and animal productions from University of Dschang, Cameroon. He is actually a PhD Student in Cellular and molecular parasitology, University of Dschang, Cameroon / He is also an associate editor at PanAfrican Medical Journal
national action plan might be a cornerstone to reduce the burden of AMR on public health. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the level of implementation of the national action plan against AMR (NAP-AMR) elaborated in 2018 in Cameroon based on One Health approach. Methods: Data were collected at the level of different ministerial services implicated in the implementation of NAP-AMR in Cameroon through interviews and an assessment metrics was used to score major activities envisaged in the NAP. A scale of 1 (no capacity for a given indicator) to 4 (high or sustainable capacity for a given indicator) was used to evaluate the level of realisation of each indicator. A score of 4/4 indicated more 75% of achievement goals, 3/4 for 51-75% achievement, 2/4 for 26-50%, 1/4 for <25% achievement. The average was then calculated for each strategic objective to bring out the overall level of Cameroon in the fight against AMR. Results: A mean score of 1.3 (no capacity) was obtained for the general implementation of activities. The slightly high score of 1.7 was obtained for the activities related to the reduction of the incidence of infection and the optimisation of antimicrobial; 1.5 to the improvement of knowledge awareness and understanding of AMR compared to the activities of strengthening of knowledge and evidence through surveillance and research with a score of 1.2 and 1.0 for the implementation of activities related to finance, governance and multisectoral coordination of the fight against AMR. Conclusion: This study highlights that the implementation of NAP-AMR in Cameroon was observed to be at the embryonic stage. The development of an operational, monitoring and evaluation strategies and sustainable funding mechanism might be important improve the implementation of the NAP-AMR in Cameroon.
1. Mohamed Moctar Mouliom Mouiche, Armand Namekong Fokeng, Fredéric Moffo, Cleophas Kahtita Mbah, Julius Awah-Ndukum. Assessing the implementation of the National Action Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance in Cameroon in a One Health perspective. BMC Public Health
2. Mohamed Moctar Mouliom Mouiche, Cleophas Kahtita Mbah, Fredéric Moffo, Armand Namekong Fokeng, Ranyl Nguena Guefack Noumedem, Julius Awah-Ndukum. Challenges of implementing integrated antimicrobial resistance surveillance in intertropical African Countries: Assessment of the Cameroon surveillance capacities. BMC Public Health.
3. Mohamed Moctar Mouliom Mouiche, Cleophas Kahtita Mbah, Viviane Fossouo Ndoungue, Armand Namekong Fokeng, Christie Tiwoda, Frédéric Moffo, Julius Awah- Ndukum. Evaluating and Monitoring capacities of global antimicrobial resistance epidemics in Africa: One health approach perspective. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control (ARIC).
4. Marc Kouam Kenmogne, Armand Namekong Fokeng, Hermann Biekop Fandio, Thomas Tumasang Tebug, Arnaud Blaise Hako Touko. Prevelance and clinical signs of ectoparasites in local chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) in the Menoua Division, Western highlands of Cameroon. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports.
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Abdellatif A Mohamed is an assistant editor in Chief in Journal of the Saudi Society for Food & Nutrition. He have completed his studies in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, he have a famous publications like physicochemical characterization of cereal bran cell wall with special reference to its rheological and functional properties
Functionality of hydrocolloids of different origin, gum Cardia (GC) and gum ziziphus (GZ) on paned bread, sponge cake and cookies quality and their potential use in retarding the staling process have been studied. Gums' effects were determined by assessing the pasting qualities of wheat flour slurry using rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), dough properties by Micro-dough Lab and solvent retention capacity (SRC) was done to tests the flour suitability for cookies making. After 24 and 96 hours of storage, investigations were conducted on the finished product by texture profile analysis (TPA) test. The diameter, thickness, spread, and sensory evaluation of cookies were evaluated. A hedonic sensory test of texture, aroma, taste, color, and general approval was also conducted. The data showed that with the addition of CG and ZG, dough softness, mixing time, and mixing tolerance index (MTI) increased, whereas stability and water absorption decreased. In comparison to the control and CG samples, ZG samples exhibited the most dough extensibility. The type of gum used had a significant impact on the physical properties of bread and cake and their evolution through time. Reduced amylose retrogradation was demonstrated by the lower peak viscosity and substantially lower setback of wheat flour gels which corresponded to lower gel hardness. Gums were superior at raising bread loaf volume, especially GZ, although gums had the opposite effect on cake volume. After both storage periods, the hardness of the bread and cake was much lower than the control. Except when 2% GC was used, adding GC and GZ gums to bread and cake invariably increased the overall acceptability of the product. In terms of shelf-life, GZ gum ziziphus was able to keep all texture parameters, volume, and general acceptability close to the control after storage. The thickness and diameter of the cookies increased but the spread decreased due to the added gums. Panelists rated the gum-containing cookies as having a poorer overall acceptability than the control, although only by a small margin. Cookies containing gum, on the other hand, can also deliver up to 5% soluble fiber.
Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O.Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon
Merline Namekong Djimeli is affiliated to the Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O.Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon.
Background: Bacteria are responsible for a large number of diseases worrying the world today. Medicinal plants have always been used by poor communities of the African continent as an alternative for the treatment of those diseases. Typhoid fever is one of those diseases caused by salmonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo antisalmonellal properties of medicinal plant called Enantia chlorantha. Methods: Salmonella typhi-infected rats daily received orally the various doses of 95% ethanolic extract of E.chlorantha stem bark (9.16, 36.5 and 73 mg/kg bw) or oxytetracyclin (20 mg/kg) for 9 days. Toxicity’s parameters as, hematology, transaminase (ALAT, ASAT), lipids profile, urea, creatinin, total proteins, body and organs weight were assessed. Results showed that the healing effect was marked by the absence of salmonella in animal’s blood cultured on ss agar. And this was observed after 6 days of treatment. Females and males rats recovered after 8 and 9 days of treatment respectively. The infection induced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the relative weight of male’s kidney and spleen and that of female’s heart; of urinary creatinin and urea, of the hepatic and kidney proteins. Significant increase (p < 0.05) of the white blood cells, granulocytes (in both sexes), blood platelet, transaminase and PAL activities, serum proteins, creatinin, total cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed. The administration of extract corrected the dysfunction and lesions caused by the infection. The doses 36.5 and 73 mg/bw corrected damages with best protection. Conclusion: The overall results showed that Enantia chlorantha have therapeutic virtues against salmonella Typhi and then the potentials as future medicines and could act as potent prototypes for the development of plant-based natural antibiotics.
District Head Quarters Hospital, India
Dr. Damera Yadaih, MBBS, DCH_1993, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad. He is working as a consultant paediatrician at District Head Quarters Hospital, Nalgonda since 25 years. Working in SNCU from 2008 as Civil Surgeon, HOD.Instrumental in establishing 1st NICU at District Hospital, Nalgonda in 2008.1st SNCU, Level-II, unit to get accreditation by NNF of India. Working to strengthen the FBNC in Telangana State to reduce NMR.
Introduction: Misuse of antibiotics is one the most common reason for drug resistant HAI and increased mortality in intensive care units, more so in the neonatal units. There is an urgent need to optimize the use of antibiotics across all neonatal settings.
Aim: To rationalize antibiotic consumption in our unit. Methodology: In this observational study we evaluate the effects of introduction and implementations of an antibiotic prescription form in all admitted neonates in our unit from September 2017 to August 2021. MS Excel and SPSS software were used to tabulate and calculate the data.
Results: During the study a total of 5170 neonates were admitted to the SNCU. The figures show the neonatal admissions and relation of antibiotic usage to neonatal mortality. There was a significant decrease in antibiotic consumption (22.2% to 4.9% to 2.2% to 3.6%). There was significant decrease in total antibiotic days (1179 vs 196 vs 158 vs 254). A significant reduction (p-value <0.001) in antibiotic consumption in pre and post intervention phase and also in the years post intervention phase. Also the death rate in infants with also reduced with the introduction of antibiotic policy (p<0.001). The proportion of infants staying for >24 hours reduced significantly with the introduction of antibiotic policy. There was a significant reduction in the cost to the unit and cost per patient.
Conclusion: A simple use of antibiotic prescription and strict adherence to its compliance is likely to reduce antibiotic usage and result in reduction in neonatal mortality and hospital duration.
Emeritus Researcher, Cancer Research Institute, Slovakia
At present, the fight against the virus is focused on early diagnosis and vaccination, which are indispensable and essential methods in finding a viable solution. However, these are virtually defensive reactions. The virus reigns. Every virus is a parasite. It cannot exist on its own. He is envious of his wearer. This is the basic condition of its existence. What living cell is a carrier of viruses? Based on more than 30 years of working with bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and HIV, I have experimentally confirmed that the host cells for these viruses are bacteria and yeast. Based on these results and considerations, I have come to the conclusion that very probably all viruses are transmitted by bacteria or yeast. So also colonavirus. The weakness of viruses that need to be exploited is that they depend on the carrier, which is bacteria or yeast. By eliminating bacteria containing viruses, the viruses cease to exist. If this idea is confirmed, many, if not all, viral infections can be stopped in this way. After transmission to humans, the coronavirus travels to cells of the respiratory tract that contain the ACE2 receptor. Upon contact of viral tentacles with this receptor, the virus is released from the carrier and penetrates the receiving cell of the respiratory tract, where the process of tissue destruction occurs. After overcoming the infection and eliminating the virus in the recipient's lung cells by a conventional drug-based treatment approach, the infection is suppressed and the patient can be pronounced cured. However, the bacteria or yeast containing the virus survive in the intestinal tract and can multiply under optimal conditions. People after having been infected may become carriers of the coronavirus and thus may infect others by secreting the coronavirus in the form of droplets, but also in faeces. Surprisingly, no attention is currently being paid to a possible fecal infection. However, history provides us with a lot of evidence about the importance of disinfection and disposal of faeces during epidemic. It is incomprehensible why, in the current epidemic, this possibility of transmitting infection is absolutely marginal and has not been considered. Particularly important is administering of suitable antibiotics which eliminate coronavirus carriers in the intestinal tract.
Department of Microbiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania
Mr. Ovidiu Zlatian graduated the Medical School in 200, with the graduation thesis "Molecular mechanisms of mithocondrial diseases with neurological manifestations”. From 2002 he is a specialist physician in laboratory medicine. His PhD project was entitled "Tumoral heterogeneity detected through phenotypic methods and molecular tests”. Currently, he works as laboratory physician in the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, Romania, one of the biggest hospitals which deserves the South-West Oltenia region of Romania. He is also a lecturer in the Microbiology department of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania. The main research interest is epidemiology of infectious diseases and transmission of hospital infections. Also he has many articles about the antibiotic resistance of hospital strains, its dynamics and association with antibiotics consumption. Also he studies effects of various compounds on bacterial growth, as plant extracts, metals or nanoparticles. He has a particular interests in infections produced by biofilm-forming bacteria as medical implant associated infections. He is a member of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and infectious diseases, American Society of Microbiology, Romanian society of Microbiology and Romanian Society of Immunology.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance represents an enormous global health crisis and one of the most serious threats humans face today. Enterobacteria-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) play an important role in healthcare infections, increasing hospitalization time, morbidity and mortality rates. Among several ESBLs that emerge from these pathogens, CTX-M-type enzymes had the most successful global spread in different epidemiological settings. We aimed to identify the beta-lactamases circulating encoded by the genes blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-1 and blaTEM-1 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains. We established the associated resistance phenotypes among patients hospitalized in County Clinical Emergency Hospital of Craiova, Romania. Methods: A total of 92 non-duplicated bacterial strains (28 strains of E. coli and 64 strains of K. pneumoniae), which were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and cefotaxime (CTX) by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method, were identified using the automated VITEK2 system. Detection of ESBL-encoding genes and other resistance genes was carried out by PCR. Results: E. coli strains were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins and moderately resistant to quinolones, whereas K. pneumonia strains were resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfamides, and moderately resistant to quinolones and carbapenems. Most E. coli strains harbored blaCTX-M-15 gene (20/28 strains), two strain had the blaSHV-1 gene, but 11 strains harbored blaTEM-1 gene. In K. pneumoniae strains we detected blaCTX-M-15 in 50 strains, blaSHV-1in all strains and blaTEM-1 in 24 strains. Conclusions: The high frequency of the CTX-M-1 group and a high rate of ESBL co-production are changing the epidemiology of the ESBL profile in hospitals. This epidemiology is a constant and increasing challenge, not only in Romania, but worldwide.